Wednesday, 12 December 2012

Introduction to C programming

Programming is a practical subject you will need to  write, type in, correct and run programs.

The C programming language was called "C" because many features derived from an earlier compiler named "B", which in turn was developed from BCPL. BCPL was a simpler version of a language called CPL, which owed many of its features to a language called Algol 60. The names most associated with this early development of C were Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie.
  • The main features of C are:Simplicity - C has a relatively small number of components, although some programmers say it has too many!
  • Efficiency - C has commands that are directly oriented towards the low level instructions, and can often produce very fast and small code. When C was developed, computers typically had 8KB of memory (8192 bytes), and so code size efficiency was a great concern.
  • Portability - C and UNIX are available on virtually every platform
C's popularity was due to two major factors.
  • The first was that the language didn't get in the way of the programmer. He could do just about anything by using the proper C construct. (As we will see, thi flexibility is also a drawback, as it allows the program to do things that the programmer never intended.)
  • The second reason that C is popular is that a portable C compiler was widely available. Consequently, people could attach a C compiler for their machine easily and with little expense.
Computer programs consist of two main parts: data and instructions.
How can you learn C
There is only one way to learn how to program and that is to write programs. You'll
learn a lot more by writing and debugging programs than you ever will by following up this blog , will break down the c and its concept for you to understand it better.

Online Security tips

  • Always install a good antivirus software and keep it up-to-date. Also install a good anti-spyware to keep your PC away from spywares.
  • Always visit known and trusted websites. If you are about to visit an unknown website, ensure that you do not click on suspect able links and banners.
  • Perform a virus scan on the files/email attachments that you download before executing them.
  • Regularly update your operating system and browser software. For a better security it is recommended that you surf the Internet through the latest version of your browser program.
  • Never share your password (email, bank logins etc.) with any one for any reason. Choose a strong password (A blend of alphanumeric special symbols) and change it regularly, eg. Every 3 months. Avoid using easy-to-guess passwords. (ex. pet’s name or kid’s name)
  • Always type the URL of the website in your browser’s address bar to enter the login pages. For e.g. to login to your yahoo mail account type
  • Before you enter your password on any login page, ensure that you see https instead of http. ex. instead of HTTPS protocol implements SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) and provide better security than a normal HTTP. For more information on HTTPS and SSL see Know More about Secure Sockets Layer (SSL).
  • Beware of phishing emails! Do not respond to any email that request you to update your login details by clicking on a link in the body of the email. Such links can lead to Fake Login Pages (Spoofed Pages). For more information on phishing refer what is Phishing?
  • Always hit the logout button to close your login session rather than abruptly terminating the browser window. Also clear your web browser caches after every session to remove the temporary files stored in the memory and hard disk of your PC.
  • Avoid (Stop) using any public computers or computers in the Internet cafes to access any sensitive/confidential information. Also avoid such computers to login to your email/bank accounts. You cannot be sure if any spyware, keystroke-logger, password-sniffer and other malicious programs have not been installed on such a PC.

Tips to maintain a virus free PC.

  • Email is one of the common ways by which your computer can catch a virus. So it is always recommended to stay away from SPAM. Open only those emails that has it’s origin from a trusted source such as those which comes from your contact list. If you are using your own private email host (other than Gmail, yahoo, hotmail etc.) then it is highly recommended that you use good anti-spam software. And finally NEVER click on any links in the emails that comes from untrusted sources.
  • Be careful about using MS Outlook. Outlook is more susceptible to worms than other e-mail programs, unless you have efficient Anti-Virus programs running. Use Pegasus or Thunderbird (by Mozilla), or a web-based program such as Hotmail or Yahoo (In Fire fox).
  • Never open any email attachments that come from untrusted sources. If it is a picture, text or sound file (these attachments end in the extensions .txt, .jpeg, .gif, .bmp, .tif, .mp3, .htm, .html, and .avi), you are probably safe, but still do a scan before opening.
  • As we all know, Internet is the main source of all the malicious programs including viruses, worms, Trojans etc. In fact Internet contributes to virus infection by up to 80%. So here are the tips for safe surfing habits so that you can ward off virus infection up to the maximum extent.
    • Don’t click on pop-up windows that announce a sudden disaster in your city or announce that you’ve won an hourly prize. They are the ways to mislead Internet users and you should never trust them.
    •  You can also use a pop-up blocker to automatically block those pop-ups.
  • 5. USB thumb/pen drives are another common way by which viruses spread rapidly. So it is always a good habit to perform a virus scan before copying any data onto your computer. NEVER double-click the pen drive to open it. Instead right-click on it and select the option "open”. This is a safe way to open a pen drive.
  • 6. Most of us use search engines like Google to find what we are looking for. It is quite obvious for a malicious website to get listed in the search results. So to avoid visiting those untrusted malicious websites, you can download and install the AVG Link Scanner which is a freeware. This tool can become very handy and will help you to stay away from malicious websites.
  • 7. Install a good Antispyware program that operates against Internet malware and spy ware.
  • 8. Install good antivirus software and keep it updated. Also perform full system scan periodically. It is highly recommended that you turn on the automatic update feature. This is the most essential task to protect your PC from viruses. If PC security is your first option then it is recommended that you go for shareware antivirus software over the free ones. Most of the antivirus supports the Auto-Protect feature that provides real-time security for your PC. Make sure that this feature is turned on.
  • Do not use disks that other people gave you, even from work. The disk could be infected with a virus. Of course, you can run a virus scan on it first to check it out.
  • Set up your Windows Update to automatically download patches and upgrades. This will allow your computer to automatically download any updates to both the operating system and Internet Explorer. These updates fix security holes in both pieces of software.
  • While you download files from untrusted websites/sources such as torrents, warez etc. make sure that you run a virus scan before executing them.
  • And finally it is recommended not to visit the websites that feature illegal/unwanted stuffs such as cracks, serials, warez etc. since they contribute much in spreading of viruses and other malicious programs.

Security tips for online shopping for Christmas , have a hack free xmas.

The internet is an exciting place to shop. From the comfort of your own armchair you can browse for literally anything, from a new camera, to a holiday or flight. You are not restricted to the stores in your local town, or even country and you can pick up deals at great prices on a whole range of products. Shopping online isn’t just as safe as handing over your credit card in a store or restaurant. However, if you take care of few things it can be a safe deal. Following are the things you should take care of:
1. Never respond to an email request for credit card details. All reputable companies will conduct transactions with you over a secure website connection.
2. Remember to never respond to any email advertisement, and only visit sites you know or have book marked, and verify the address before browsing further.
3. Only buy from trusted brands and websites.
4. To ensure that you only do business with legitimate companies check to see if they have a contact number, an actual retail store and a printed catalogue to browse.
5. Check a website’s returns and privacy policy before going ahead with a purchase.
6. Check that you are entering your details through a secure payment connection. You should notice when you click through to the transaction page of a company’s website that the URL in the address bar begins https:// (instead of the normal http ://). This is the standard encrypted communication mechanism on the internet and means that your credit card details are being sent securely.
7. Beware of deals that seem too good to be true.
8. Beware of the limitations of the internet. The internet may not the best place to buy clothes or other products you need to see, touch or try on.
9. All reputable websites use secure payment systems. These are either a company’s own system or a 3rd party system such as Worldpay or Pay pal.
10. When conducting a transaction over the internet, look for the yellow padlock in the grey status bar at the bottom of your browser page. This is an indication that the transaction is being conducted over a secure connection.
11. As an extra precaution check to see if there’s a gold lock at the bottom of the right hand corner of the browser. If they don’t include any of these reliable indicators, you might want to think twice before handing over your credit card number.
12. To be on the safe side, and avoid Internet fraudsters, it’s also a good idea to install and use security software such as
Kaspersky Internet Security, Norton 360 etc. It can provide you with industry-leading security services that will provide you more protection against the latest threats.


ReVuln Ltd. , a small security company headed by Donato Ferrante and Luigi Auriemma, post a video that demonstrates that how attacks can gain root on the appliances. Samsung Smart TV contain a vulnerability which allows remote attackers to swipe data from attached storage devices. In this demonstration readers will see how it is possible to use a 0-day vulnerability to retrieve sensitive information, root access, and ultimately monitor and fully control the device remotely. Auriemma said, “We have tested different Samsung televisions of the latest generations running the latest version of their firmware.

Aramco cyber attacks intends to stop oil production Saudi Arabia's national oil company "Aramco" is the country’s largest oil production facility and is a significant exporter in the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries. They said that a cyber attack against it in August which damaged some 30,000 computers was aimed at stopping oil and gas production at the biggest OPEC exporter. The interior ministry said it was carried out by organised hackers from several different foreign countries and Aramco employees and contractors were not involved. “The main target in this attack was to stop the flow of oil and gas to local and international markets.

Anonymous hackers once again hit Egyptian Government Websites and taken down. Hackers react under operation named #OpEgypt and hit 30 websites with DDos attack. Hacktivist using the handle @AnonymousGrupo claimed the responsibility of attack. Attacked websites include, The Egyptian Presidency website, The Egyptian Cabinet, Trade Agreements Sector (TAS), Maritime Transport site, Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics, parliament website, Income Tax and many more. At the time of writing, many sites has been restored, but a few like is still under maintenance.

A Gold Coast, Australian medical centre computers are infected with some ransom malware by a group of Russian hackers. The hackers encrypted the practice’s patient database, demanding payment of $4000 for the files to be decrypted. "Cyber criminals based mainly throughout Eastern Europe look for rich targets, places with identifying information to extort," Mr Phair, director of the Centre for Internet Safety and a former investigator with the Australian High-Tech Crime Centre. There have been 11 similar offences in Queensland this year, according to police.

"H4ksniper" hacker claiming responsibility for disrupting three South African government websites. This morning after hack, website of The social development department opened to a black page with a window containing the animated graphic “Website hacked by H4ksniper”. Another message on the deface page was "Hello South Africa :D , Bad News For You IM BACK ! ..You Messed With Us & Now You Must Suffer..From Morocco with love." On asking, hacker said that the reason of hack is " We all know that SA is the first supporter of the [República Árabe Saharaui Democrática] RASD and the enemy of Morocco since a long time and we are hackers....

Anonymous deface Hacker Supporting Anonymous Group, with his nickname - "PV~E.rr0r" hack 516 websites.  Deface page shows a very cool animated Anonymous logo with text "We unite as one but no one can divide us. Expect us!" Because hacker intention was not to harm the website, so he has not change or delete any file, rather he just just upload his deface page on each site at "/Err0r.html" . In a message, Hacker told The Hacker News that purpose of hacking website is just to show their admins that they are vulnerable and need more security

A new version of the Zeus botnet was used to steal about $47 million from European banking customers in the past year. This Zeus variant Trojan is blamed for attacks that stole more than 36 million Euros ($47 million U.S. dollars) from an estimated 30,000 consumer and corporate accounts at European banks. Dubbed "Eurograbber" is more than just another banking Trojan. It's an exploitation of fundamental online banking authentication practices that could strike any institution. With the phone number and platform information, the attacker sends a text message to the victim's phone with a link to a site that downloads what it says is "encryption.
New U.S. drone hacked by IRAN It's known, drones are privileged vehicles for reconnaissance and attacks, technology has achieved level of excellence and their use is largely diffused, that's why defense companies are providing new solution to make them increasingly effective. But the incredible amount of technological components could be itself a point of weakness, last year in fact an U.S. stealthy RQ-170 Sentinel drone was captured by Iranian military near the city of Kashmar. The vehicle was used in reconnaissance mission, it took off from near Afghanistan, exactly from Kandahar airfield. In this hours government of Teheran has announced to have captured..

Coming up soon CYBERINFOCTS Security community

A platform where security professionals share their point of view, exchange ideas and get update on IT security. For more details on how to subscribe for our monthly bulletin contact us at
"Hacking, in reality, is a creative process that is based more on lifestyle than lesson."
"It is much better for you to embrace hacker learning habits, which are probably the most vital part of hacking and will separate you from the script kiddie (a person who runs hacking tools without knowing how or why they work)."
"The secret is to learn to see the fundamental structure underneath the thin skin of details Don't just limit yourself to computers, hacking, and the internet. Great hackers are wellrounded and creative. Many of them are painters, writers, and designers. Hacking skills can also be applied to other fields, such as Political Science. Besides being interested in other fields, you should be interested in how other businesses operate. Reading books on everything from psychology to science fiction will make you a much more versatile and functional hacker. Remember, hacking is about figuring out how things work regardless of how they were designed to work. This is how you expose insecurities, vulnerabilities, and leaks."


This is to inform the students that our session begins 12 January 2013

The students are to send the complete application form to the Administrative Department at Cyber Information Communication Technology Services
12 Owo dunni Street, Omotayo Road Allen Ikeja Lagos.
or call us at 07037288651

Courses includes:
Microsoft Office and Internet
Internet, social networks and online marketting
Website Design
Ethical Hacking and Forensics
Inverter construction
Laptop, Desktop and Phone repairs
Graphics Design
Penetration Testing
Cyber security

Wishing our clients and our Potential Clients Compliments of the Season

The Cyber Information Communication Technology Service wish to express our gratitute to those who has been a part of our growth since we started. Thanks for your co-operation.

What we stand for?
At cyber Information communication Technology Services (Cyberinfocts) we are aim at providing IT solutions at an affordable rate, getting the value for your money and time.  We partner with a  Linux Group GNU/ILG India to provide IT solutions.
Our services include:
Network security
Website security
Penetration Testing
Wireless Security
Firewall security
SCADA security (for OIL companies Infrastructures)
Physical Security(CCTV Camera Installation, Buglary Alarms, Fire alarm, car tracker)
Data security and Desktop Security
Forensics Investigations
Firewall implementation (software and Hardware)
Data Recovery from Corrupted IT devices

We also offer Training on :
Ethical Hacking
Forensics Investigation
Cyber Intelligence
Cyber Security
Wireless security
Penetration  Testing and Vulnerability Assessment
How to use Internet works , social networking, online marketting.
Microsoft Office
Database Management 
Website Design
How to build their inverter
How to repair laptop, desktop and Mobile Phone.